भाकृअनुप - सरसों अनुसंधान निदेशालय
ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research
(Indian Council of Agricultural Research)
Sewar, Bharatpur 321303 (Rajasthan), India

Significant Achievements of AICRP-RM

Cop Improvement

  • 189 rapeseed-mustard varieties (118 Indian mustard; 7 Karan Rai; 14 Gobhi Sarson; 24 Toria; 15 Yellow Sarson; 3 Brown Sarosn; 1 Black Mustard; 7 Taramira) were developed and released.
  • 78 Rapeseed-mustard varieties were developed and released from SVRCs and 29 trait specific germplasms were registered with NBPGR.
  • A total of 6,605 accessions comprising toria (547), Indian mustard (4822), yellow sarson (617), gobhi sarson (116), brown sarson (105) karan rai (235), taramira (70), B. tournifortii (04) and other wild species (67) were maintained through appropriate matting system at different coordinating canters.
  • Efforts continued to perfectize 3 line system of developing hybrids in Indian mustard. The promising CMS source, mori and its restorer have been diversified in two different high yielding back-grounds and improved version of both are now available. Sustained efforts led to the development of workable system (A, B and R lines) for hybrid development in Indian mustard.
  • Genotypes RH 8814 and RH 8816 has been identified as tolerant to frost, salinity and high temperature seedling mortality.
  • 2825 germplasm accessions of rapeseed-mustard were collected and 11795 were evaluated for agro-morphological characters at various AICRP centers.
  • Donors for drought (RH-819, Aravali mustard, Vaibhav, RH-30), salinity (CS-54, CS-52, Narendra rai, BPR-541-4, BPR-540-6, RM 11, RGN 48, SKM 9927), frost (RH-781, Urvashi, RGN 48, DHR 9701), high temperature tolerance at seedling stage (NRCDR-02, RH-8814, BPR-543-2, NPJ 92, NPJ 93, DHR 9701) and high temperature tolerance at terminal stage (BPR-541-4) were identified.
  • Low glucosinolate content was transferred from agronomically poor exotic genetic stock of B. juncea, BJ-1058 to the genetic background of high yielding mustard varieties.
  • Genetics of Fatty Acid Profile and glucosinolate content has been worked out and gene pool for high oil content and disease resistance developed.
  • DUS test guidelines have been developed and 103 varieties of rapeseed mustard were characterized.
Crop production
  • Basal application of 40 kg S/ha + thiourea (0.1%) sprayed at pre-flowering stage increased mustard seed yield.
  • Application of 0.09-0.15 kg/ha oxadiargyl 80WP (PE) or 0.75 kg/ha trifluralin 48EC (PPI) or 0.15 kg oxyfluorfen 23.5EC (PE) or 1.0 kg isoproturon 50WP (PE) or 0.75-1.0 kg/ha pendimethalin 30 EC (PE) effectively manages weeds in rapeseed-mustard.
  • Weeds caused 8.8-63.0% loss in seed yield of rapeseed-mustard. Depending upon the weed flora at respective centers the herbicides 1 kg a.i/ha isoporteuron 75WP at 30 DAS, 0.15 kg a.i./ha oxyfluorfen 23.5EC (PE), 1 kg a.i./ha pendimethalin 30EC (PE), 0.75 kg a.i./ha pendimethalin 38.7CS (PE), 0.75 kg/ha trifluralin 48EC (PPI), 0.06 kg a.i./ha quizalofop 5EC (PE), 0.06 kg a.i./ha clodinafop 15WP (25-30 DAS) and 0.09 kg a.i./ha oxadiargyl 80WP (PE) were effective against weeds and significantly reduced yield losses.
  • Soil incorporation of 2.5 t/ha mustard straw along with Sesbania green manuring increased seed yield of Indian mustard by 45%. The organic production system produced significantly higher yield of Indian mustard (1535 kg/ha) as compared to subsistence (842 kg/ha) and conventional (1049 kg/ha) farming.
  • Technological shift in irrigation method from check basin to micro-irrigation (sprinkler or drip) reduced the total water requirement for Indian mustard up to 67% and increased the seed yield at least by 38.6%.
  • Application of 40 kg sulphur along with 1 kg boron per hectare increased the seed and oil yield of mustard in the deficient soils.
  • Application of 150% NPK under rice-mustard in Zone-I, Zone-II, Zone-III and Zone-V resulted in maximum seed yield in Rice/Maize/Pearl millet-mustard cropping systems, respectively.
  • The variety NRCHB 101 gave maximum seed yield when sown on 10 November at 30x10 cm spacing and with 150% RDF (N:P:K:S:B:Zn:FYM @ 60:32:30:24:1:15 kg/ha: 5t/ha) at Imphal.
  • Application of 20 kg S/ha to Brassica under rice-brown sarson at Khudwani and black gram- mustard at Dholi and cluster bean-mustard system with 100%RDF at SK Nagar recommended for higher yield and net return
  • Line sowing of rapeseed-mustard after land preparation in rice field and 80 kg N/ha fertilizer is recommended under utera cropping system in Zone I (HP and Kashmir valley) and Zone V (Bihar, Chhatisgarh, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam, Northeastern states).
  • Maize- mustard (short duration) - green gram system was found more remunerative than the traditional maize-wheat system and recommended for Pantnagar and Kangra conditions.
  • Improved agro production technology for recently released varieties of rapeseed-mustard has been developed for different agro – ecological situations.
  • Pearl millet + Cluster bean (fodder) mustard sequence was most remunerable under Rainfed conditions of Rajasthan. Replacement of fallow-mustard cropping system with cowpea (fodder)/ Cluster bean-mustard gave more net returns.
  • Application of soybean oil as well as sesame-mustard crop sequence significantly reduced Orobanche infestation
  • Foliar spray of agro-chemicals at 50% flowering+ 50%pod filling stage effectively mitigates the terminal drought stress and significantly increase the seed yield over control. Based on the experiments conducted at 17 centers under AICRP RM over three years the average increase in seed yield was 16.7% due to foliar spray of 1% urea, 21.0% due to 0.05% thiourea and 24.8% due to 1% KNO3 at Zone II; 26.5% due to 1% urea, 33.10% due to 0.05% thiourea and 37.6% due to 1% KNO3 at Zone III and 41.4% due to 1% urea, 52.0% due to 0.05% thiourea and 45.7% due to 1% KNO3 at Zone V. The mean maximum ICBR of 8.64 was recorded with foliar spray of KNO3 followed by 0.05% thiourea (ICBR 7.59) and 1% urea (ICBR 6.28).
  • Application of hydrogel 5.0 kg/ha + foliar spray of salicylic acid 200 ppm at flowering and siliqua formation stage recorded 5.3, 9.6, 20.4, 31.3 and 6.9% 18.6, 42.6, 37.7, 72.6 and 133% higher seed yield in zone I, II, III, IV and V, over 5.0 kg/h hydrogel alone and control, respectively.
  • Application of irrigation at 0.4-0.8 IW/CPE ratio along with 2.5/5 Kg hydrogel/ha recorded maximum seed yield across the locations.
  • Irrigation at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio with hydrogel 5 Kg is recommended to enhance the water use efficiency at Morena, Pantnagar, Shillongoni and Ludhiana. Application of hydrogel @ 2.5-5.0 Kg/ha is recommended for achieving higher seed yield at Jobner, Nagpur, Bawal and Chatha. Application of irrigation at 0.6 IW/CPE ratio at Bawal and Chatha was recommended in Indian mustard.
  • Intercropping of mustard + maize (1:1 or 1:2) at Bhubaneswar and Dholi; wheat + mustard (9:1) at Varanasi, Kanke and Nagpur and mixed cropping of wheat + mustard (90:10%) at Chatha proved more remunerative than their sole crops at their respective centers. However, sole mustard at Kanke and sole wheat at Kanpur and Morena were more rewarding than their intercropping.
  • Seed treatment with Azotobactor + PSB along with 100%NP resulted in 2.0 to 14.7% higher seed yield in comparison to 100%NP at different centers (Morena, Varanasi, Hisar, Kota, Shillongani, Jobner (taramira), Bhubaneswar, Khudwani, SK Nagar and Kanke).
  • Weeds caused 16.8-33.3% loss in seed yield at different locations. Overall, Jayanti, Sheetal and Neelam in Zone I (Khudwani, Kangra); RH 0749, RGN 73, NRCDR 2, RLC 1, NRCDR 601 and Laxmi in Zone II (Chatha, Ludhiana, Hisar, Bawal and Sriganganagar); Maya, NRCHB 101, Kranti, Rohini and JM-3 in Zone III (Kanpur, Varanasi, Pantnagar and Morena); Bio 902, Varuna, Laxmi, GM 3 in Zone IV (Jobner, SK Nagar and Nagpur) and Rajendra Suflam, Seeta, Sarama, TM 2 and Varuna in Zone V (Dholi, Kanke, Berhampore, Shillongani and Bhubaneswar) were found competitive against weeds.
  • Foliar spray of brassinolide @20ppm and salicylic acid @100ppm improved seed yield under rainfed conditions
Crop protection
  • Foliar spray of mancozeb 0.2% 45 DAS followed by hexaconazole 25 EC @ 0.05% 60 DAS proved effective in controlling the Alternaria leaf blight.
  • Sources for tolerance against Alternaria identified in B. juncea (PHR2, EC399313, EC399299, PAB9534, EC399301, JMM 915), B. napus (PBN 9501, PBN 9502, PBN 2001, PBN 2002) and B. carinata (HC 1, Kiran).
  • Foliar spray of propiconazole 25 EC @ 0.05% was proved effective against powdery mildew and Sclerotinia rot.
  • Seed treatment (ST) carbendazim 50WP 2g/Kg seed+ no irrigation during 25th December to 15th January+ foliar spray (carbendazim 50WP @ 0.2%) at 45-50 and 65-70 DAS for effective management of stem rot.
  • Yield losses with different incidence level of Sclerotinia rot disease were resulted in increased yield loss(13.3% at 1,24.4% at 2,48.4% at 3 & maximum 64.7% at score 4).
  • DRMR-1-5, DRMR 2035, DRMRJA 35, DRMRIJ 12-40, DRMRIJ 12-26, DRMR 2019, DRMRIJ 12-28 were recommended as resistant source for white rust disease
  • Alternaria brassicae fungal culture should be alternatively grown on tomato-dextrose broth/agar and mustard leaf extract/agar medium for maintenance and profuse sporulation.
  • Seed treatment with Trichoderma harzianum @ 10 g/kg seed followed by foliar spray of Pseudomonas fluorescence (oil-based) @ 10ml/1 at flower initiation stage for reducing the disease (white rust, Sclerotinia stem rot, downy mildew and Alternaria blight).
  • Soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg /ha + S (dose location specific) followed by 2 foliar sprays of carbendazim + mancozeb @ 0.2% at 45 and 60 DAS was most economical and effectively reduced all foliar diseases.
  • Foliar spray with NSKE @ 5% or neem oil @2% for the management of mustard aphid as an alternative to chemical control
  • Imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 20g ai/ha or 0.25 ml per liter of water was found effective against painted bug at Bharatpur, Hisar and Navgaon with higher IBCR.
  • Dimethoate 30 EC@ 300g a.i./ha or imidacloprid 17.8 SL @ 20g a.i./ha was found effective against mustard aphid and recommended for its management.
  • Foliar spray of mancozeb 0.2% 45 DAS followed by metalaxyl 8% + mancozeb 0.2% 60 DAS proved effective in controlling the white rust.
  • Spray of dimethoate @ 1 ml/litre followed by release of Coccinella septempunctata @ 5000 beetles/ha is recommended for the eco-friendly integrated pest management of mustard aphid.
  • An unidentified dipteran fly was found as Bio-control agent of Bihar hairy caterpillar and a fungus of painted bug.
  • Verticillium lacanni. Chrysoperla carnea and Chilonemus sexmaculatus were evaluated as bio-agents of mustard aphid.
  • Dimethoate 30 EC @ 300 g a.i./ha was found effective against painted bug and recommended for its management.
  • Seven white rust donors DRMR-1-5, DRMR 2035, DRMRMJA 35, DRMRIJ 12-40, DRMRIJ 12-26, DRMR 2019, DRMRIJ 12-28 identified.
  • Dimethoate 30 EC @300 g a.i./ha/ml per liter of water was found effective with higher IBCR for painted bug management.
Technology dissemination
  • A total of 14083 frontline demonstrations on improved production and protection technologies were conducted in 17 states of India on whole package, varietal component and other component technology, respectively during last 20 years under irrigated as well as rainfed conditions.
  • Breeder seed of rapeseed-mustard was produced and the demand was met in full.