The importance and potential of rapeseed-mustard crop is well known as it is the key oilseed crop that can help in addressing the challenge of demand - supply gap of edible oil in India. It is world’s third most important source of edible oil after soybean and oil palm. Each and every part of the plant is of importance in the human livelihood. It is also utilized for flavouring, medicinal and preservative purpose since time immemorial. India is the third largest rapeseed-mustard producer in the world, accounting for about 12 per cent of the world’s total rapeseed-mustard "seed" and about 8.5% of the world's total rapeseed-mustard "oil". In India, rapeseed–mustard is grown in diverse agro-climatic conditions ranging from north-eastern/north-western hills to southern parts of the country. The crop is grown singly or in mixed cropping system under both rain-fed and irrigated conditions. Of the total area and production under the nine oilseeds crops grown in India, rapeseed-mustard accounts for 22.2% of the acreage and 22.6% of the production. The average rapeseed-mustard yield in India is about 1145 kg/ha compared to the combined oilseeds crops average of 1135 kg/ha. Although rapeseed-mustard is cultivated in 13 states of the country, bulk of the production takes place in four states including Rajasthan (45 %), Uttar Pradesh (13 %), Haryana (11 %), and West Bengal (8 %). Nearly 74 per cent of the area under the crop is irrigated. During the last 20 years, persistent efforts of the scientists of DRMR and AICRPRM has lead to the development of several improved Rapeseed-Mustard varieties, crop production technologies and crop protection technologies. The introduction of high-yielding rapeseed-mustard varieties, hybrids and refinement of the improved production technology by the Directorate of Rapeseed-Mustard Research (DRMR), Bharatpur, have contributed significantly in improving the productivity and production of Rapeseed-Mustard in India besides enhancing quality of the produce.